Organic 18 Август 2014

Эффективность комплексного применения пестицидов

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О.В. КУЛАГИН, П.И. КУДАШКИН,

старшие научные сотрудники

Сибирского НИИ земледелия и

химизации сельского хозяйства

 

В Западной Сибири потери уро­жая яровой пшеницы от комплекса вредных организмов оцениваются в среднем в 30-35 %, а в годы мас­сового распространения могут до­стигать 60 % и более. Научны­ми учреждениями, в том числе и сибирскими, разработаны эффек­тивные меры борьбы с вредителя­ми, болезнями и сорняками на по­севах зерновых культур, однако данных по комплексному применению фитосанитарных средств против всего спектра вредных организмов мало, и зача­стую они носят противоречивый характер. Между тем, в настоящее время имеется широкий ассорти­мент препаратов, которые можно использовать в одной баковой смеси.

Нами в течение ряда лет в произ­водственных условиях проводились исследования по выявлению пре­имуществ такого применения средств защиты в технологиях воз­делывания пшеницы в лесостепи Приобья. В 2005 г. в ЗАО «Сенчанское поле» применение гербицидов только против двудольных сорняков не улучшило фитосанитарное со­стояние посевов. Так, опрыскива­ние яровой пшеницы в фазе куще­ния баковой смесью магнум, вдг, 0,007 кг/га + диален супер, вр в сни­женной норме расхода (0,2 л/га) снизило воздушно-сухую биомассу двудольных сорняков к началу убор­ки на 99 % (в контроле 160,4 г/м2), но масса мятликовых сорняков ос­талась такой же, как в контроле (136,8 г/м2), при этом урожайность увеличилась лишь на 0,16 т/га при урожайности в контроле 1,85 т/га. При добавлении в смесь противозлаковых гербицидов (пума су­пер 100, кэ, 0,75 л/га или лас­тик ПГГ, кэ (0,5 л/га)) общая засо­ренность посевов снизилась в 8,4-11,4 раза, а урожайность возросла еще на 0,37-0,39 т/га. Применение фалькона, кэ (0,6 л/га) в фазе коло­шения пшеницы на фоне гербицидной обработки уменьшило развитие септориоза с 10 до 3 % и повысило сбор зерна еще на 0,2 т/га. Общая прибавка урожая от применения пе­стицидов составила 0,69 т/га.

В 2008 г. эффективность комп­лексной защиты яровой пшеницы от вредителей, болезней и сорняков изучали в ОПХ «Элитное» Новоси­бирской области. Защиту от сорня­ков проводили в фазе кущения куль­туры гербицидными смесями: зер­номакс, кэ в сниженной норме расхода (0,4 л/га) + магнум, вдг, 0,007 кг/га и зерномакс, кэ, 0,4 л/га + магнум, вдг, 0,007 кг/га с добавле­нием противозлакового гербицида топик, кэ, 0,4 л/га. В фазе начала ко­лошения пшеницу обрабатывали смесью фунгицида тилт, кэ, 0,5 л/га и инсектицида брейк, кэ, 0,1 л/га.

Применение всех средств защи­ты растений значительно улучшило фитосанитарную ситуацию на посевах по сравнению с контролем. Воздушно-сухая биомасса сорняков снизилась в 10 раз (в контроле - 344 г/м2), пораженность растений септориозом - на 77,6 %, бурой ли­стовой мучнис­той ржавчиной – на 95, мучнистой росой - на 78 % (в контроле ин­дексы развития болезни составили соответственно 3,3; 2,2 и 5,6 %), за­селенность колосьев личинками трипса - на 83 % (в контроле насчи­тывали 32 личинки/колос). При ком­плексном использовании пестици­дов урожай яровой пшеницы увели­чился почти в полтора раза, масса 1000 зерен - на 5,8 г, а условный чистый доход был в 2,6 раза выше, чем в варианте с применением только противодвудольных герби­цидов.

В 2009 г. схему опыта несколько модифицировали. Для снижения вредоносности мятликовых сорня­ков использовали ластик экстра, кэ (0,9 л/га), его добавляли в баковую смесь зерномакс + магнум, которой опрыскивали посевы в фазе куще­ния пшеницы. Смесь фунгицида колосаль про, кнэ ,0,4 л/га и инсекти­цида борей, ск (0,08 л/га) применя­ли в фазе колошения культуры для подавления комплекса листостебельных инфекций и пшеничного трипса. Кроме того, был зало­жен вариант, где смесь прима, сэ (0,2 л/га) + магнум, вдг, 0,007 кг/га + ластик экстра, кэ, 0,9 л/га+ колосаль про, кнэ, 0,4 л/га применяли в фазе выхода в трубку. Во все баковые смеси при опрыскивании добавля­ли прилипатель адью, ж, 0,2 л/га.

Эффективность гербицидов была высокой: численность сорняков в посевах в фазе молочно-восковой спелости зерна снизилась более чем на 80 %, а биомасса - более чем в 13 раз (в контроле имелось 505 экз/м2 и 67,6 г/м2). Срок внесе­ния пестицидов не повлиял на их эффективность, при опрыскивании в фазе выхода в трубку как мятли- ковые, так и двудольные сорняки были угнетены не хуже, чем при об­работке в фазе кущения. Фитотоксического влияния позднего приме­нения гербицидов на растения пше­ницы не наблюдали.

Фунгицид снизил пораженность растений бурой листовой ржавчи­ной и септориозом (мучнистая роса в этом году встречалась спо­радически) соответственно на 99,5 и 85 % (в контроле индекс разви­тия болезней составил соответ­ственно 9,7 и 17,5%). При обработ­ке в фазе выхода в трубку эффек­тивность против ржавчины была ниже - 75 %, а против септори- оза - не изменилась (83 %). Ис­пользование борея в фазе колоше­ния снизило число личинок трипса в колосе на 99,4 % (в контроле - 33 экз/колос). Поэтапное улучше­ние фитосанитарного состояния привело к последовательному ро­сту урожайности яровой пшеницы. Применение только противодвудольных гербицидов обеспечило дополнительно лишь 0,17 т/га зер­на, при этом масса 1000 зерен уве­личилась на 2,4 г. Добавление в смесь граминицида увеличило урожай еще на 0,43 т/га. Исполь­зование в одной смеси гербицидов и фунгицида колосаль про в фазе выхода в трубку повысило урожай­ность по сравнению с контролем почти на 1 т/га, а раздельное при­менение гербицидов в фазе куще­ния и фунгицида с инсектицидом в фазе колошения обеспечило рост урожая на 1,11 т/га и массы 1000 зерен - на 5,1 г. При этом условный чистый доход, получен­ный в результате применения ком­плекса средств защиты, увеличил­ся почти в 10 раз по сравнению с опрыскиванием посевов только дикотицидами, он был выше в 2,1 раза в сравнении с вариантом ком­плексного подавления двудольных и однодольных сорняков.

Таким образом, внесение пести­цидов против всего спектра вред­ных организмов, обитающих в аг- роценозе, увеличивает продуктив­ность гектара пашни, а при грамот­ном использовании за счет их применения в баковых смесях суще­ственно повышает и экономичес­кую эффективность. Подбор пре­паратов для баковых смесей опре­деляется наличием и прогнозом развития вредных объектов, со­вместимостью пестицидов и их препаративных форм. Комплекс­ное применение химических средств защиты рационально толь­ко при формировании предпосы­лок для получения высокой уро­жайности зерновых.

 

Защита и карантин растений. 2011. № 6. С. 23-24.

 

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