Organic 18 Август 2014

От чего зависит засоренность картофеля

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А.А. МОЛЯВКО, директор

Брянской опытной станции по картофелю

А.В. МАРУХЛЕНКО, Н.П. БОРИСОВА, научные сотрудники

 

Проблема засоренности посевов сельскохозяйственных культур была актуальна сотни лет назад, когда бо­ролись с сорняками лишь тяпками, актуальна она и сейчас - при наличии мощной почвообрабатывающей техники и гербицидов. Без борьбы с сорняками невозможно продуктив­ное возделывание и такой широко­рядной культуры, как картофель, осо­бенно в период до смыкания рядков. В фазе всходов уменьшают урожай­ность даже 5 сорняков на 1 м2, или 1 % покрытия ими площади. В пери­од формирования стеблестоя культуры порог вредоносности достигается при 5 % покрытии площади сор­няками. Сильные по своей конкурен­тоспособности сорняки (куриное просо, щетинник, щирица запрокину­тая, марь белая, различные виды гор­ца, лебеда раскидистая, подмарен­ник цепкий, пырей ползучий, вьюнок полевой, осот желтый и бодяк поле­вой) оказывают влияние не только на урожайность, но и на размер клуб­ней, что снижает их товарность, ус­ложняет механизированную уборку и увеличивает потери.

Степень засоренности посадок картофеля в большой мере опреде­ляется технологией возделывания и свойствами сорта. В связи с этим в 2006-2008 гг. нами проведены ис­следования по изучению влияния комплекса агроприемов на засорен­ность посадок и урожайность сортов картофеля. Изучалось влияние сле­дующих факторов: А - гербициды (1- без применения гербицидов; 2 - обработка титусом - 50 г/га по всхо­дам при высоте растений 5-10 см); В - дозы удобрений (1 - N90P90K120 - средняя, 2 - N120P120K150 - повышен­ная); С - сорта картофеля разных групп спелости (1 - Погарский - ран­ний, 2 - Слава Брянщины - средне­спелый, 3 - Брянский надежный - среднепоздний). Почва опытного участка - дерно­во-подзолистая супесчаная с содер­жанием гумуса (по Тюрину) 1-1,1 %, подвижного фосфора (по Кирсано­ву) - 21,7-24,6 мг, обменного калия (по Масловой) - 10,3-11,8 мг на 100 г почвы, рНкс| - 6-6,2. Погодные условия 2006 и 2008 гг. были более благоприятными для выращивания картофеля, чем в 2007 г.

Как показали результаты исследо­ваний, засоренность посадок карто­феля в период всходов, до примене­ния гербицида титус, по всем вари­антам опыта была примерно одина­ковой как по количеству, так и по массе сорняков. После применения титуса засоренность снизилась.

В течение вегетационного перио­да картофеля наибольшее развитие сорняков наблюдали дважды: при формировании гребней и в конце вегетации при засыхании листьев культуры. На повышенном фоне удобрений засоренность посадок была меньше, чем на среднем по всем сортам, что объясняется более мощным развитием надземной био­массы растений картофеля и значи­тельно большим затенением почвы. В конце вегетации засоренность по­высилась на обоих фонах, так как значительная часть гербицида к это­му времени уже разложилась. При этом в варианте с обработкой титу- сом насчитывалось меньше сорня­ков, например, на сорте Брянский надежный - 14,6 и 9,7 шт/м2 против 15,2 и 16 на безгербицидном фоне.

Интенсивность развития сорняков зависела также от сортовых особен­ностей картофеля. Из изучаемых сортов это проявилось значительнее на сорте Слава Брянщины, так как он имеет более разветвленную надзем­ную массу, сильнее затеняющую по­чву по сравнению с сортами Погарс­кий и Брянский надежный. Поэтому на этом сорте насчитывалось мень­ше сорняков как по количеству, так и по массе в периоды цветения и на­чала отмирания ботвы на фоне при­менения гербицида титус и без него.

Среди сорняков преобладали многолетники: вьюнок полевой, пы­рей ползучий, осот желтый и бодяк полевой. Применение титуса снижало численность куриного проса, пы­рея ползучего, оказывало угнетаю­щее действие на вьюнок полевой, осот и бодяк, что сказывалось и на формировании биомассы сорняков.

Таким образом, на фоне гербици­дов в результате устранения конку­ренции со стороны сорняков созда­лись благоприятные условия для роста, развития и продуктивности картофеля. Прибавка урожая от при­менения гербицида титус в среднем за три года составила 29 ц/га, или 15 %. Повышение фона удобрений с N90P90K120 до N120P120K150 увеличило урожайность в среднем на 35 ц/га, или на 19 %. Наибольшая прибавка урожая в среднем за 3 года отмечена у сорта Слава Брянщины - 40 ц/га, Погарский и Брянский надежный - 35 и 29 ц/га соответственно.

 

Защита и карантин растений. 2011. № 1. С. 30-31.

 

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